Child With Abnormal Newborn Screen for Congenital Hypothyroidism

Differential diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism Failure of normal thyroid gland development (thyroid dysgenesis) Failure of thyroid gland hormonal production (thyroid dyshormonogenesis) TSH Deficiency (Central hypothyroidism) Iodine…

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Infant With Suspected Hypoglycemia

Differential diagnosis of neonatal hypoglycemia: Sepsis Transient (transitional) neonatal hypoglycemia Infant of diabetic mother Decreased glycogen stores (e.g. IUGR) Perinatal stress hyperinsulinism Genetic hyperinsulinism Hypopituitarism i.e.…

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Child With Suspected Type 2 Diabetes

Differential diagnosis for diabetes Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) Chemical/medication induced diabetes Stress induced hyperglycemia Monogenic Onset Diabetes of Young/Maturity onset diabetes of…

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Child With Suspected Type 1 Diabetes

Differential diagnosis for diabetes Type 1 diabetes (T1DM), Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) Chemical/medication induced diabetes Stress induced hyperglycemia Monogenic onset diabetes of young / Maturity onset…

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Child With Suspected Hyperthyroidism

Differential diagnosis for hyperthyroidism Graves’ disease, Thyrotoxic phase of thyroiditis, Surreptitious ingestion of levothyroxine Rare causes in children: TSH- dependent hyperthyroidism including pituitary TSH-secreting tumors Resistance…

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Child With Suspected Gynecomastia

Differential diagnosis of gynecomastia: Pubertal gynecomastia Pseudogynecomastia due to obesity/lipomastia Hypogonadism Hyperthyroidism Exogenous exposures to lavender, tea-tree oil Medication Induced: Antipsychotics, Anabolic steroids, Alcohol or drugs…

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Child With Suspected Acquired Hypothyroidism

Differential diagnosis for Acquired Hypothyroidism Autoimmune thyroiditis/Hashimoto’s thyroiditis/Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis Euthyroid Sick Syndrome/ Non-thyroidal Illness Subacute thyroiditis / Other thyroiditis Drug induced hypothyroidism: thioamides, amiodarone, excessive…

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Child With Suspected Excessive Cortisol Production

Differential diagnosis for Cushing disease/syndrome Exogenous obesity (typically no associated growth impairment) Depression/ physical stress Polycystic ovary syndrome Uncontrolled diabetes/ alcoholism (in adults) Additional Information Additional…

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Adolescent With Suspected Hirsutism

Differential diagnosis of Hirsutism: Physiologic hyperandrogenism of puberty Idiopathic hyperandrogenism PCOS Less commonly: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH): late onset CAH, mild CAH, non classic/virilizing CAH Androgen…

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